# KevCaz's Website

## Miscelleneous

As I am jumping on a project where I will code mainly in Julia, I thought it was worth spending some time to remind myself about core Julia’s features. I have already spent some reading reading Julia’s documentation which is great and definitively worth reading, but I was looking for something shorter and found ‘Julia language: a concise tutorial’ (Github repository available here), which by the way is listed in the Julia tutorials page. IMHO, this is a good resource to get started with Julia (only a few hours to go through) as well as a good refresher course. Below I took some notes that should mainly act as a personal reminder, but might be useful for other.

## Using Greek letters

In Julia variables can be Greek letters. I used to switch to the Greek keyboard to type these, but there is also the option to use the LaTex syntax + tabulation, e.g. type \alpha then Tab\ to get α in the prompt. This actually also applies to various LaTeX symbols, e.g. \in for $\in$ or \infty for $\infty$.

## Double loops

There is an alternative and simpler syntax for double loops:

 1 2 3  for i = 1:2, j = 2:4 println(i*j) end 

 1 2 3 4 5  for i = 1:2 for j = 2:4 println(i*j) end end 

## Do blocks

Do blocks are an alternative syntax for anonymous functions:

 1 2 3 4 5 6  myarray = [1 2 3 4 2 3 4] findall(myarray) do x x == 2 end # is equivalent to findall(x -> x == 2, myarray) 

## Vector manipulation

Here is a list of useful functions to manipulate vectors:

• append!(), push!(), pop!(), popfirst!()
• sort() and sort!()
• maximum(), minimum()
• shuffle() and shuffle!() in package Random
• append!()
• empty!()
• deleteat!()
• in()
• length(), size(), ndims()
• findall()

## Arrays, tuples and dictionaries

For arrays (matrices, vectors), use [] and element of the same type (type migh be Any), for tuples, use ().

Example of arrays

 1 2 3 4 5 6  Vec1 = ["a", "b", "c"] Mat1 = [[1, 2, 3] [4, 5, 6]] Arr1 = [[1 2], [3, 4], [4 6]] Arr2 = Array{Float64, 2}(undef, 2, 3) mask = [[true, true, false] [false, true, false]] Mat1[mask] 

Tuples:

 1 2 3 4 5  Tup1 = (1, 2) Tup2 = (1, "b", Mat1) Tup3 = (1, "b", Mat1, cos) Tup3 Tup3[[1, 3]] 

A named tuple:

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7  Ntup = (pos=1, txt="b", val=Mat1, fun=cos) Ntup.pos Ntup[[:pos, :txt]] pairs(Ntup) collect(Ntup) keys(Ntup) values(Ntup) 

A dictionary:

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  Dic1 = Dict("pos"=>1, "txt"=>"b", "val"=>Mat1, "fun"=>cos) Dic1["fun"] Dic2 = Dict(:pos=>1, :txt=>"b", :val=>Mat1, :fun=>cos) Dic2[:pos] Dic3 = Dict(1=>1, 2=>"b", 3=>Mat1, 4=>cos) Dic3 collect(Dic1) keys(Dic1) values(Dic1) 

Overall, NamedTuple are generally more efficient and should be thought more as anonymous struct (see the “Custom structure” section) than Dictionaries.

Convert a tuple in a vector:

 1 2  V1 = [Arr1...] V2 = collect(Arr1) 

Convert an array in tuple:

 1  T1 = (Arr1...,) 

When applying a function to a vector, one may encounter the following error:

 1 2 3  julia> cos([1, 2, 3]) ERROR: MethodError: no method matching cos(::Vector{Int64}) [...] 

Instead of adding a morph to the function, one may simply use the map function:

 1 2 3 4 5  julia> map(cos, [1, 2, 3]) 3-element Vector{Float64}: 0.5403023058681398 -0.4161468365471424 -0.9899924966004454 

Or, even simpler, the broadcast mechanism (.)

 1 2 3 4 5  julia> cos.([1, 2, 3]) 3-element Vector{Float64}: 0.5403023058681398 -0.4161468365471424 -0.9899924966004454 

As mentioned in the tutorial:

While in the past broadcast was available on a limited number of core functions only, the f.() syntax is now automatically available for any function, including the ones you define.

Here is a list of functions to manipulate types

1. supertype(MyType)Returns the parent types of a type
2. subtypes(MyType) Lists all children of a type
3. fieldnames(MyType) Queries all the fields of a structure
4. isa(obj,MyType) Checks if obj is of type MyType
5. typeof(obj) Returns the type of obj

For instance:

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  julia> subtypes(AbstractFloat) 4-element Vector{Any}: BigFloat Float16 Float32 Float64 julia> supertype(String) AbstractString 

Note that

• a::B means “a must be of type B”
• A<:B means “A must be a subtype of B”.

and that

Although obviously less flexible, immutable structures are much faster.

## Polymorphism and Parametric Methods

First, in the declaration of a Julia function, position arguments come first then followed by keyword arguments, the two are separated by a semicolon. Default values may be applied to both kind of arguments, position arguments cannot be preceded by their name, keyword arguments must be called by their name.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7  function myfun(a,b=1;c=2) (a+b)*c end myfun(a=2) # BAD myfun(2, 2, 2) # BAD # only keyword arguments myfun2(;a,b=1,c=2) = (a+b)*2*c 

In the example above different methods per function are used to account for the default value, so for instance if myfun(1) is used the method where b is set to 1 and c is set to 2 will be used, but with myfun(1, 3), the second method where only c as a default value will be used:

 1 2 3 4 5 6  julia> myfun(a,b=1;c=2) = (a+b)*c myfun (generic function with 2 methods) julia> myfun(1) 4 julia> myfun(1, 3) 8 

And Julia is capable to keep stacking methods, for instance if parameters becomes string, a new method can be added:

 1 2 3 4 5 6  julia> myfun(a::String,b::String="1";c::String="2") = a*b*c myfun (generic function with 4 methods) julia> myfun(1, 3, c = 4) 16 julia> myfun("b", "a", c = "c") "bac" 

Of course, this requires to be cautious as one should then think about whether the correct method will be used in the right context. Furthermore, Parametric Methods introduce type parameters that are an efficient way to design method based on argument type, so if I re-write the two methods above using this, I would write something like this:

 1 2 3 4 5 6  myfun(a::T,b::T;c::T) where {T<:Number} = (a+b)*c myfun(a::T,b::T;c::T) where {T<:String} = a*b*c julia> myfun(1, 3, c = 4) 16 julia> myfun("b", "a", c = "c") "bac" 

Note that this allows to constrains the parameter types, in the example above all the three argument must be of the same type:

 1 2 3 4 5  julia> myfun(1, 3, c = 4.0) ERROR: TypeError: in keyword argument c, expected Int64, got a value of type Float64 Stacktrace:  top-level scope @ REPL:1 

Last, below is an example with two different types:

 1 2 3 4  julia> myfun3(a::T,b::T;c::N) where {T<:Number, N<:String} = string(a+b)*c myfun3 (generic function with 1 method) julia> myfun3(2, 2, c = "cool") "4cool" 

## Metaprogramming

I should spend more time reading about metaprogramming in Julia. As for now, I will keep in mind that :pos declares “pos” as a symbol (equivalent to Symbol(pos)) and is the representation of a variable name (a value value may or may not be assigned to it) and that symbol are super useful, e.g for subsetting purpose, (see above).

Configuration
 1 2 3 4 5 6  $inxi -S System: Host: deblen Kernel: 6.4.0-1-amd64 arch: x86_64 bits: 64 Desktop: GNOME v: 43.6 Distro: Debian GNU/Linux trixie/sid$ Julia -v julia version 1.9.1